On-Chain Tier

These sources offer non-aggregated blockchain data, which allows for calculating the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) for each validator.

These data providers offer on-chain data that enable the computation of staking reward rates by leveraging the inherent data available on the blockchain. Vinter can offer a theoretically precise staking reward rate.

Computing Staking Reward Rates

When Tier 1 providers offer block-level data, data engineers are responsible for computing the staking reward rates. This task requires a comprehensive understanding of the specific asset and its associated economics. Factors such as slashed validators and penalties must be carefully considered to ensure accurate staking rate calculations.

Evaluation Criterion

To determine the suitability of a data provider as Tier 1 for a particular protocol, we must ensure that the provided data enables unbiased staking reward rate computation. Thorough research into the staking economics of the protocol is necessary, along with the ability to retrieve staking risks and costs, including slashing, from the on-chain data provider.


Some potential Tier 1 data providers for multiple protocols, assuming they meet the evaluation criterion, include:

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